4. James Madison

4.  James Madison - Our Presidents He also suffered from psychosomatic, or stress-induced, seizures, similar to epileptic fits, that plagued him on and off throughout his youth.
On September 15, 1794, Madison married twenty-six-year-old Dolley Payne Todd, a lively Philadelphia widow with one infant son, Madison was, age forty-three at the time. Dolley, a beautiful woman who enjoyed a party,she quickly earned a reputation among conservatives and political enemies, who criticized her for gambling, wearing make-up, and using tobacco.
Dolley's sister, Lucy Payne, had recently married George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of President Washington
In his later years, Madison became extremely concerned about his historic legacy. He took to modifying letters and other documents in his possessions: changing days and dates, adding and deleting words and sentences, and shifting characters. By the time he had reached his late seventies, this "straightening out" had become almost an obsession. As an example, he edited a letter written to Jefferson criticizing Lafayette: Madison not only inked out original passages, but went so far as to imitate Jefferson's handwriting as well.[94] Madison may have been trying to make himself clear, to justify his actions both to history and to himself. Between 1834 and 1835, he sold 25% of his slaves to make up for financial losses on his plantation Madison was the first president who had prior service as a congressman
Zachary Taylor and Madison were second cousins.

Madison was the first president to wear long trousers. All previous presidents wore knee breeches.

During the War of 1812 Madison was under enemy fire. He was the first president to be in that situation.

At 5 feet, 4 inches and less than 100 pounds, he was the shortest and lightest president.

Dolley Madison sent the first personal message using the Morse telegraph in 1844.

The United States has placed likenesses of the Presidents on many types of coins and currency. James Madison appeared on the five-thousand dollar bill, which is no longer in circulation .
4.  James Madison - Our Presidents In retirement at Montpelier, his estate in Orange County, Virginia, Madison spoke out against the disruptive states' rights influences that by the 1830's threatened to shatter the Federal Union. In a note opened after his death in 1836, he stated, "The advice nearest to my heart and deepest in my convictions is that the Union of the Sta4.  James Madison - Our Presidentstes be cherished and perpetuated."

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